A Few Words About…(Tips) Category

Thursday, September 15th, 2011

A Few Words About: Getting Help in Moodle

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Last month I asked my Moodle host to upgrade BeeLearn.com to 2.1.  I’m getting antsy to overhaul my curriculum using the new features of Moodle.  It took him about two hours to complete the entire site upgrade, including the back-ups of the old site. Everything works swell, except for a couple of third-party modules that we knew wouldn’t work beyond Moodle 1.9x (not yet, anyway).

A few days earlier, I had set up my new desktop PC, with the latest of every version of software for every application you can imagine.  As of today, I am still trying to get to the same level of functionality I had before the upgrade.  Since I had the same computer, with the same version of the operating system and application software for five years, I had many customized settings.  I had grown accustomed to the location of tools and options.  Now, I can barely delete an email.

The thing is, when I have a question such as “how do I enable conditional activities in Moodle” I have four choices:

  1. Poke around until I figure it out myself
  2. Read through the online documentation (always easy to locate)
  3. Post a question at a forum and wait for a response from another user
  4. Ask a Moodle expert, such as my host (if I have engaged him for a support contract)

All of these options are reasonable, by my standards.  I typically receive helpful answers in a short period of time.  Option # 4 is the only one that costs anything and it is also the most reliable.

In the six years that I’ve been using Moodle, I’ve heard some folks express concern that since it is open source there’s really no one to respond to questions; no one is responsible to provide explanation of a feature or help troubleshoot a problem.  That seemed like a valid concern, if options 1-3 above were not feasible for certain people.  I get it. Not everyone has my curiosity or tenacity; maybe they are more interested in rock climbing than learning Moodle.  That’s cool, too.

Now I’m wondering how those people are coping.  When I clicked on the Help icon in my brand-spanking new desktop software (it doesn’t matter which application; they’re all the same), I was stunned, horrified, mortified (you get my point) to be taken to an online community forum and presented with literally hundreds of posts that were somewhat related to my keyword.

What happened to the help index?  Where is the comprehensive list of how to do whatever?  I’m fine with that process when the software is open source and I didn’t pay to download it.  But when the application costs $1000 and I have to accept legal terms to use it, I do not expect to receive support from some other user who happened to figure something out!

What this tells me is that open source software (such as Moodle) just took one more giant leap toward “the business model of the future”.  That one advantage of proprietary software – paying more for the product to ensure technical support – just went down the drain.

If you had any reservations about Moodle – or any other open source application – because of the “lack of support” – you can rest assured that you will get at least – and probably better – support from the enthusiastic Moodle community than you will from the reluctant and desperate users of those “other products”. Most Moodle Partners offer on-going support contracts (essentially, personal help forums) that are less money than the purchase price of my desktop suite that has no such support.

Note:  When you’re building your business case and determining your budget, be sure to include the costs of training and support for Moodle if you plan to do most of the build yourself. If you don’t have the time or desire to learn Moodle to that extent, include the costs of a course developer in your budget.  Actually, these costs are added on to any project, regardless of whether you use Moodle, other open source, or proprietary software.  None of them come out of the box with your content in them!

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Friday, August 26th, 2011

A Few Words About: Online Applications, Free or Not

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A Few Words AboutAs I was writing the two previous posts on online applications, I discovered that one I just learned about was no longer available.  Earlier this summer, I was about to back up my life’s work to an online storage service, when I realized that their pricing had gone from $10/month to $49/month.  Last winter, the Moodle community was stunned by the sudden shut-down of the web meeting service, DimDim.

How can this be?  Why is this happening?

Well, you see, these online applications are typically in business to make money, just like you.  They offer free services as a sort of “free sample”.  If you like it, you’ll buy more.  What happens is that not enough people buy to justify giving away any more samples.  Perhaps the free-sample people take up more time and support resources than the people who pay for their accounts.  Or, maybe the application is so awesome that some bigger company decides it would be a competitive advantage to own that code.  They buy out CoolOnlineEditor.com.  This is great for the college kid who wrote the code, but not so great for those of us who were using his online services.  In some instances, a big, evil company comes along and buys out the really good application just so the rest of us cannot use it. Sad, but true.

For online services such as quick image editing, PDF printing, and screen casts, the worst that can happen is that you’ll have to find another service. That shouldn’t slow you down too much.

If you use a social media service to aggregate your Twitter, Facebook, email, IM, etc…and that’s the only place you store your usernames and passwords, you’ll spend a lot of time recovering that information.  Then you’ll have to spend some time finding and learning another application.  This is annoying, but not too serious.

If the free (or inexpensive) photo gallery (or other document storage) system you use shuts down, this is just a pain in the neck if you have a copy of everything.  If you don’t have a back-up, well, that’s catastrophic. Of course, big name sites (like Kodak and Google) are not as likely to shut down and leave you hanging as WeRCheap4Storage.com, but they do have a right to change their policies.

What is the risk?

Anything and everything online is at risk (although some risks are so low you might as well worry about a meteor strike). With downloaded software (resident on your computer), the worst thing that can happen is that it is no longer supported. Online, any service can:

  • Stop taking registrations
  • Discontinue features
  • Start charging for features that were free or raise prices
  • Disappear altogether (shut down the site) for any number of reasons.  This is the worst because it can be without warning.

The more effort you put into building the content or customizing the online application, the more you stand to lose.  A blog with 100 posts is far more difficult to rebuild than an online gallery of the photos you have duplicates of on your hard drive.  The more you stand to lose, the more you should do to prevent any negative impacts on you.

What can you do?

For any and all of it, back up anything you can.  Keep it stored where you can easily recover it and restore functionality as quickly as possible.

For the more content-rich applications, the ones you depend on heavily, and/or those that will take you a lot of time to set up or customize to your needs, do your homework before investing that time.  Read reviews at CNET, PC Magazine, PCWorld, SourceForge, industry-specific publications, and of course, online searches for specific functionality.  Choose a stable application (one that has good reviews from users and IT experts alike and has been around “a while”) and back up your content regardless of how good they are!

Platforms such as Moodle, Joomla, WordPress, and Drupal are probably here to stay, but is your host?  Even though I know my sites are backed up and protected as much as humanely possible, I still back up the content, copies of which I keep copies on my local drives.  I would never risk a free hosting service unless it was associated with an organization I had plenty of confidence in.

We live in a rapidly changing world, which is both good and bad.  Nowadays, there is such a thing as a “free lunch” – for a time anyway.

The lesson is: don’t put all your eggs in one basket.  The more dependent you are on an application, the more important it is that you a) make sure you have a recovery plan if that application shuts down and b) investigate the options so that your choice of application is based on something other than “it’s free”.


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Sunday, June 19th, 2011

A Few Words About: Using Moodle Outcomes

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A Few Words AboutA question was recently posed regarding certification for Lean Six Sigma.  There is no governing body and no standard test.  Many companies, including my own, offer certification. How can that be?  How can someone be certified to do something when there is no standard against which to measure that person’s competence?

The irony here is that Lean Six Sigma is all about measurements, standards, and processes.  As a professional in the field for more than two decades, I know the importance of operational definitions, standard processes, and calibrated measurements.  This is no less important when it comes to certifying experts.

Whether your profession has standards for certification or not, you can – and should – use reliable and valid instruments for measuring competencies and skills.  The scales that you use to grade need to be applied consistently. You also need to ensure that what you’re measuring is correlated to competency in that job; i.e.: a Lean Six Sigma Black Belt.

Assuming that you’re training for certification, not just administering tests, a great way to design and validate your certification process is to use Moodle Outcomes.

Outcomes are not simply pass/fail grades.  Grades of tests and assignments, along with other demonstrations of competence, are used to determine the outcomes based on a set of evaluation criteria.  This set of criteria is known as a rubric.

Outcomes – and rubrics – can become quite complicated and they aren’t something you can apply directly from one curriculum to another.  You can, however, follow good examples, such as this one at Moodle.org.

Before you can create your own rubric, you need to:

  1. Determine the competencies required for the certification or diploma you are awarding.
  2. Design the training that will teach these required skills.
  3. Design the testing that will reliably measure the competencies gained by your training.

Once you have defined the set of criteria for each outcome, then you can:

  1. Deliver the training and testing (tests, written assignments, hands-on assignments…)
  2. Evaluate each student against those criteria.

Stay tuned to this blog and Buzzy’s Beehive for many more posts on rating scales, grades, good question writing, and how to implement them in Moodle.


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Tuesday, November 23rd, 2010

A Few Words About: Moodle Activities & Resources

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A Few Words AboutAlthough Moodle uses the terms activity and resource, I think of them all as pages or entities.  I suppose this is because each one shows up as a single link in the course outline (on the main page) or in a listing of each type. I choose which one to use based on the format and objective for each section of content, regardless of how Moodle classifies it. 

Each one comes with a choice of options, which are dependent on the activity or resource type. There will be even more choices with Moodle 2.0.  This post is about Moodle 1.9x only. 

In general, Moodle activities have more choices of settings than do Moodle resources; these are mostly to do with dates and grading.  From the students’ view, the biggest difference is that activities (again, in general) require - or allow - some input from the student.  Some examples of Moodle activities:

  • Quizzes
  • Assignments
  • Glossaries
  • Forums
  • Chats
  • Web meetings
  • Choices
  • Wikis

Activities can be set to allow viewing all of the time, have an available and/or due date, allow comments, allow inputs, and allow grading. 

Resources have fewer settings and can be anything from a web link to a static page of text.  The student uses a resource, but does not contribute to it.  Resources are used to provide information to the student and include:

  • Labels
  • Web pages
  • Links
  • Directories

Resources are typically available all of the time (they can be hidden but do not have date settings), do not allow input from students, and are not graded (or commented on).  Note:  Moodle 2.0 will make significant changes to availability settings.


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Wednesday, October 27th, 2010

Jazzing Up Your Moodle Courses with Collaborative Activities

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Many of my clients are new to eLearning.  Some have 200 page books (all text) while others have material that is mostly video or slides.  Hardly anyone starts out with a blended learning syllabus that perfectly balances individual learning with group activities.  The hardest thing to do when converting these materials to eLearning is to keep the students involved and interested. 

Here are some ideas of how you can use Moodle collaborative activities to engage your students and provide opportunity for interaction with other students, without costing you a dime or adding more items to your to-do list: 

  • Instead of creating a glossary of terms for your students, assign them the task!  Give them a list of terms to define; let them choose a few or require them to define every term.  Allow duplicates and allow ratings.
  • Do the same thing with the Moodle wiki.  Assign students a list of topics – tell them to come up with their own – relevant to the course subject matter.  Grade them based on their writing skills, the quality and number of citations, or anything else you think is an important measure.
  • One of the best ways to learn a topic is to explain it to someone else. Instead of answering questions posed in forum posts right away, wait some predetermined time (48 hours?) until students have had a chance to help their classmates.  Or, assign a team of students to respond to forum posts for one week.  (You can always jump in and set the ship right if they get off track).
  • Even better, ask students to start discussions.  Have them monitor the replies and respond to questions.  Suggest that they “ask questions” that will bring out the most common misunderstandings of the topic so that the discussions will further reinforce the right interpretations.  I did this when I wrote my first Moodle courses in statistical analysis.
  • Hold a panel discussion each week (or month) using the Moodle chat.  Set a time and choose a general topic.  Have some things to say to get the ball rolling before anyone asks a question.  Don’t make the mistake of going in unprepared.  This chat should have a purpose, which generically, is to further facilitate learning.
  • Even better, ask students to be responsible for these panel discussions.  Let them choose their own topics or assign them.  Either way, explaining something is a great way to learn it
  • You can do the same thing with web meetings within Moodle.  There are several options that are free to use.  The advantage a web meeting has over a chat is that you can display anything from a histogram to a Rembrandt; from a map to a color wheel.  If a visual is important to your discussion, this would be better than a chat. 

In case you’re new to all of these, some quick descriptions of Moodle activities: 

  • Glossary: Dictionary of terms, with definitions.  Can included pictures, audio, etc., but typically the definitions are relatively short. This is an asynchronous activity.
  • Forum:  Threaded discussions that allow replies and ratings.  This is an asynchronous activity. 
  • Wiki: More like an encyclopedia than a dictionary. Wikipedia is the granddaddy of all wikis. This is an asynchronous activity.
  • Chat:  Online typing of questions, answers, and ideas.  Users are identified on the screen and what they type appears much like a movie script. 
    • Penny: I said this.
    • Pitcher73: I agree
    • Scarymary: I think it’s all very cool
    • Etc.

In Moodle, if at least two people “chat”, a transcript is saved.  This is a synchronous activity.

  • Web Meeting: More than a chat because there is typically audio as well, plus a virtual whiteboard (some or all of the participants can “write” on it and it is displayed on everyone’s monitor), a screen presentation, or video.  This is a synchronous activity. The free versions don’t always offer a recorded transcript, but this isn’t always necessary. (Confesssion: I never listen to or watch recorded transcripts of meetings, especially if I wasn’t there to start with.)  

For more on web meetings and other collaborative features, check out my previous post.  

Let me know if you have any other ideas to get people involved, interested, and talking!


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Thursday, October 14th, 2010

What eLearning is NOT

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You don’t have to do any Moodle content creation. My course is already in Word so you can just upload it“.  These are 21 of my least favorite words when strung together. It makes me sad because it just isn’t what e-Learning should be! So, I take a deep breath and say:

“Great!  You have already written your course text, so all I have to do is convert it to the HTML that is displayed by Moodle, add some links, pictures, and multi-media, along with quizzes, assignments, and other LMS features, right?”

I go on to explain (as I am explaining here), why eLearning – Moodle or otherwise – is not a series of Office® (or Office-like) documents that are to be opened and read online.

  • There are so many versions of Microsoft Office (2003, 2007, 2010, Mac, readers only…), not to mention Open Office and other similar applications built for both PCs and Macs, that no matter how nicely formatted your document is, it is unlikely to look that way when the user opens the file.
  • We all have different fonts installed.  Most computers have Arial and Times New Roman.  But even fonts that were installed at the factory differ from one computer to another, so if I use Corbel in a Word document, my friend who uses a Mac will see something entirely different.  Forget any fonts that I purchased; they will be replaced by something else when that person opens the file.
  • It’s easy to save a copy, edit, pass around, and even claim ownership of such documents.
  • Security and confidentiality go out the window (no pun intended) when information is presented in downloadable documents.
  • Many file types can not be opened at all by mobile devices or on public computers that don’t have those applications installed, which undermines one of the benefits of eLearning – it’s available from any computer.

Using PDF documents will solve most of these issues.  But what a PDF makes up for in security and formatting, it loses in usability.

  • Live links in PDFs are possible, but not often implemented by the creators.  You have to have an add-on application to include links.  Even at that, it can be tedious.
  • While it is possible to create forms out of a PDF document, they can’t be used as templates the way a spreadsheet can.

Regardless of what type of document you link online, if it can be downloaded and saved, you lose control of it.  Even if all you want to do is correct a typo or change your contact information, you have no guarantee that those changes will be universal.  Most of the people who already downloaded the document that you changed will never know you changed it.  At the very least, they’ll keep both versions.

The advantages of eLearning are many: 24/7 worldwide access, always up to date, social interaction, interesting and varied, participation can be tracked…none of these advantages are possible when the content is nothing but linked documents.  Use linked documents that can be edited only when you want to provide your students with templates for their own use. Use linked PDFs only for eBooks, white papers, and other types of documents that you want students to keep for reference.

To learn what makes eLearning GREAT, read this post.


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Monday, September 27th, 2010

A Few Words About: Internet lingo to help you in your eLearning decisions

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A Few Words AboutIn most small businesses, each person wears many hats.  Chances are, your small business does not have a full time IT person; even if you do, that person is probably not the one responsible for your eLearning design.  Because you’ll have to make decisions about what your site will be called, where it will be hosted, and who will maintain it, I thought you’d benefit from some simple definitions of the terms you’ll hear.

The following are my own definitions, sticking with the hotel analogy of the past few posts…  

  • A website is a set of pages (or just one page) of any type of content (images, text, dancing bear animations).  These pages are connected together by a domain name.
  • A domain name is the way we identify and find most of these websites. It’s the address of the hotel.  Example: PennyMondani.com.  You will register your domain name with a registrar, but you are under no obligation to host with that same company.
  • A URL is the location of each unique “page” on the World Wide Web, such as the page on this site about me:   http://pennymondani.com/penny-mondani.  This is the room number within the hotel. Notice that it contains the domain name plus some directions on where to find this domain name.
  • An IP address is the unique identifier for each computer (or other address) used to access the Internet.  Back in the Stone Age, we had to know the IP address of a computer in order to connect to it.  Now we use a URL on our browsers to connect through a series of computers (servers) to get to the website we want.  YIKES!  Think of this as the GPS location of every traffic signal you went through on your way to the hotel, the GPS location of the hotel itself, and the GPS location of the place you started.
  • A server is a computer that stores and “serves” web pages to those who wish to view them.  One server can house hundreds of websites or as few as one. 
  • A sub-domain is part of the domain, even if the actual address is masked to the visitor.  If you have MySite.com/Moodle, your Moodle installation must be installed on the same server as MySite.com. 
  • A web host is the company that maintains the physical servers and/or resells that service to you.  For all applications, the web host (or the reseller you contract with) should also be skilled in installing, upgrading, and using the application, unless you are very good at it yourself.   

For a whole lot more detail on applications, web site themes, and web content, please read this post.


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Friday, August 13th, 2010

Open Source vs. Proprietary: What does it mean to a small business?

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Most conversations I have with potential clients include this question: “If Moodle is free, what am I paying you for”.  I wrote the answer to that in a previous post.  I promised to explain what “free” means, how that applies to Open Source Software, and what difference it makes to a small business owner. 

Open source software is that which has unencrypted code – meaning that anyone can see the source files (where the software program exists), and freely modify it.  Open source software is usually free of charge, and usually comes with no guarantees that it will work as described.  This might sound horrifying to you, but most of us have experienced bugs, poor support, and even fatal errors with software that was proprietary and cost a lot of money.  Proprietary software has encrypted code; if you look at the program files all you’ll see are a bunch of symbols and you are not allowed by law to modify them even if you could figure out how.  The free in open source refers to freedom of use, not cost.  Contrary to popular belief, open source software is still “copyrighted” in most cases, which does more to protect the users than the creators.  That’s a good thing.

Why would you want to use open source vs. something that was “guaranteed”?  Well, here’s a perfect example.  I am so used to going into the source files of Moodle and WordPress (both open source with strong communities of developers and users), to change colors, images, and strings of text that I found myself staring at my Microsoft Outlook the other day, wondering how to do the same thing.  I wanted to use the “out of office assistant” but I didn’t want the subject of the email to read “Out of Office Reply”.  If Outlook was an open source application, I would find that string in the code and change it to something else, such as “Thank you for contacting us”.  This does not take a genius to accomplish.  It’s really simple; but it is impossible to do in a proprietary application such as Outlook.  Moodle and WordPress (as I have them installed with reliable hosts and responsible web companies looking after them) are far less quirky (for me) than Outlook. In my eBook, Moodle e-Learning: Questions and Simple Answers about Online Training, I tell the tale of the proprietary LMS software that promised to do everything but did nothing.  I couldn’t get my $5000 back, even with an attorney! So “guarantees” mean nothing to me.  

Now, you may be thinking “I don’t want to make modifications”, but you probably do want those changes made, even if you’re not the one doing it.  Your web designer, for instance, makes changes to existing code all the time.  When you say “I want that color to be a little brighter” or “Can you change the font to Arial?”, you are asking him to modify the code.  This is relatively easy in Moodle, WordPress, Drupal, and all open source applications…it can not be done in proprietary software unless the creators built in a button to change the color or font.  In order to make those “little” changes that you have probably become accustomed to (if you have a website), you would have to go through a lot bigger effort and spend a lot more money if you are modifying proprietary software.  That is, if it could even be done at all.

Some software companies, like Apple and Articulate, have proprietary software as the core and offer software development kits (SDK) so that the community can create “applications” that integrate perfectly with their software.  This results in some really cool stuff, as most of you know. 

As a business owner, you should investigate all of your options for whatever functionality you desire.  Sometimes, a proprietary application will be the best solution for your needs.  Chances are, unless you are a giant business, you will have to settle for the out-of-the-box applications if you go the proprietary route.  If you want more flexibility, open source will likely be your best solution in the long run. Before deciding on any application, you should obtain actual user reviews, with specific ratings on function, support, scalability, and anything else that matters to you.  You can find very reliable reviews of an exhaustive list of open source software at SourceForge.net.  This is where I was able to find Moodle, the LMS I strongly recommend for small and medium businesses, authors, trainers, consultants, and other entrepreneurs who want to offer online training to clients and employees.


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Tuesday, July 13th, 2010

A Few Words About: Course Outlines

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A Few Words AboutOne of the very first steps to take when writing a book, an essay, or a training course is to create an outline.  You may have had this as an assignment in grade school.  I did.  I found writing outlines to be a very natural task but I realize that for many, it is as daunting as an accounting balance sheet is to me.  (Daunting is an understatement). 

No matter how difficult it is for you to create a course outline, or how convoluted your process is to do it, I can guarantee you three things:  it will get easier, it will save you lots of time and confusion, and you will end up with a better product in the end.  It might even make the difference between finishing the course (or book, essay, etc.) and never having anything more than a pile of ideas. 

There are many ways to go about creating an outline; in fact, I do it differently, depending upon how organized my thoughts are to begin with.  What you want to end up with is a list of topics/pages in the same order that the reader will be viewing the material.  Some ways to do this include: 

  • Jot down topics on a piece of paper – or each topic on one sticky note.  Move them around until the flow feels comfortable to you.
  • Start with a really high-level overview of the subject, adding detail to each section until you’re at a “chapter” or “sub-section” level.
  • If it helps you in the process, make note of what types of things you would include in that section – everything from jokes to examples to activities that you’d like to use to illustrate the point.  These things will not end up in the final outline, but they can be helpful in the organization process.
  • Alternatively, you could list everything in the world you ever wanted to say about this subject; then start crossing things off as redundant or outside the scope of the course.
  • Speaking of scope, it is usually a good idea to have your Purpose-Objectives-Goals (POG) written first, but not always.  If you’re writing a training curriculum where the same subject might be delivered on many levels to different people with different objectives, it might be easier to create the “complete set” that you can later choose from for each audience’s needs.
  • Prioritize the topics. Don’t try to include every topic or every example on the subject.  Not everything has equal importance for this audience.

Regardless of how you start out - with lots of detail, with nothing but ideas on individual scraps of paper, or an organized breakdown of major topics - your outline should look something like this one from one of my Moodle courses.  It should be targeted to your audience; what they need to know, how they best learn it, and how much time you have to spend with them (face to face or virtually). 

As many years as I’ve been doing this, I almost never get it “right” the first time.  You should expect to rearrange, add to, and subtract from, your first draft.  Don’t be discouraged by this and don’t be afraid to ask for help.  Ask your friends, co-workers, and family members to run through it with you.  Even someone who has no idea what you’re talking about can be helpful in assessing continuity and flow.  And of course, you can always seek help from your course designer!


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Wednesday, June 30th, 2010

A Few Words About: Formatting Your Content

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From the May 2010 issue of Penny For Your Thoughts newsletter…

When preparing materials to give to your newly hired course designer, ask her (or him!) what format is best. You may not realize it, but building a course in an LMS application such as Moodle can not be accomplished by simple “copy/paste” or “upload” of an entire file. Each page is actually a web page, written in HTML just like this newsletter, a WordPress site, and any number of other web applications that you may have seen or even used.

HTML doesn’t like special characters (like the apostrophe I just typed) or formatting symbols used by Word. They may look ok when you paste them in, but on the user’s screen, they’ll show up as little rectangles instead of punctuation; you’ve seen them before, I’m sure. Or, maybe you thought someone went wild with the ampersand. That’s what happens when you copy directly into an HTML editor from another application with its own formatting. PowerPoint has another whole set of problematic formatting and PDF isn’t without quirks.

So, before you go through the effort of nicely formatting something, ask your designer what will work best for her. Most of the formatting I receive has to be completely scrubbed out and redone.


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